Alebtong district was created in 2010 from the then greater Lira District. Like her sister districts of Otuke, Apac, Amolatar, Dokolo and Oyam, Alebtong is predominantly occupied by Langi ethnic group. The origin of the Langi is obscure but it is generally held by a reasonable majority that they originated from Abysinia in Ethiopia.  They are considered to be part of the Nilo hamites (also known as semi-hamitic) group, which includes the Iteso, Kumam, Jie and Karamojong tribes.  The Langi in contrast of their fellow ethic groups above, have adopted a simple Nilotic language (of mixed dialect).  It is believed that their movement from further north into the present habitat took place between the years 1800 – 1890.

Before the advent of British Administration of 1889, the Langi were divided into many small groups or clans, each with its own leader. For example, Chieftainship with the overall leadership for the entire area lying in the “WONYASI” Administration

The present district headquarters at Alebtong was established in 1914 as a county headquarters for Moroto County. The creation of Alebtong district also came with creation of Ajuri County-a county curved out of Moroto County and the creation of three other new sub counties of Akura, Awei and Abia curved out of Aloi, Abako and Apala Sub counties respectively.

Alebtong is one of the districts in the Northern region of Uganda. It is bordered by Otuke district in the North, Lira in the West, Dokolo in the South and Amuria District in the East.  It lies between latitudes 020south and 18’North and longitudes 330 East and 18’ East, with an average altitude of 1100m above sea level. Alebtong District headquarters are situated Alebtong Town Council.

Alebtong district has a total area of about 1819.95 Sq. Kilometres of which land area is 1555 square km.